The city was founded by Calipha Abd-ar-Rahman III of Cordova in 955 AD. It was to be a principal harbour in his extensive domain to strengthen his Mediterranean defences.
Its Moorish castle, Alcazaba, is the second largest among the Muslim fortresses of Andalusia, after the Alhambra.
The ancient walls of Jayrán.
In this period, the port city of Almería reached its historical peak. After the fragmentation of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Almeria continued under powerful local Muslim Taifa emirs like Jairan, the first independent Emir of Almería, Cartagena, and Almotacin, the poet emir. Both Cartagena and Almotacin were fearless warriors, but also patrons of the arts. A silk industry, based upon plantings of mulberry trees in the hot, dry landscape of the province, supported Almería in the 11th century and made its strategic harbour an even more valuable asset. Contested by the emirs of Granada and Valencia, Almería experienced many sieges, including one especially fierce siege when Christians, called to the Second Crusade by Pope Eugene III, were also encouraged to attack the Muslim 'infidels' on a more familiar coast.
things you can not miss in Almeria
- The Alcazaba, a medieval fortress that was begun in the 13th century but destroyed by an earthquake in 1522. It includes a triple line of walls, a majestic keep and large gardens. It commands a quarter in white colours, of Muslim-age aspect.
- The Cathedral, has a fortress-like appearance due to its towers, merlons and protected paths, created to defend it from Mediterranean pirates. Originally designated as a mosque, it was later converted into a Christian church, before being destroyed in the 1522 earthquake. In the 16th century it was rebuilt in the Renaissance style, whilst keeping some of its defensive features
- Renaissance church of Santiago, built in 1533, with tower and portal decorated with reliefs.
- Chanca, a group of houses carved into rocks.
- Castle of San Cristobal, now in ruins. It is connected to the Alcazaba by a line of walls.
- Museum of Almería. Includes findings from Prehistoric, Iberic, Roman, Greek ages and Muslim objects, mostly from the Alcazaba.
- Paseo de Coches, a modern seaside promenade with gardens and palms.